Models are only useful if they help us identify key aspects of policy, mimic reality, communicate concepts in a meaningful way, give means by which they can be tested, and hypothesize about the causes and consequences of public policy.
A. Order and Simplify Reality
Models need to strike a balance between simplifying reality in order to analyze political life and the danger of oversimplifying.
B. Identify What Is Significant
A difficult task in applying any model is determining what aspects of public policy must be included.
C. Be Congruent with Reality
While models are only concepts, they must have a relationship with reality.
D. Provide Meaningful Communication
A model is only meaningful if it is based on ideas for which some consensus exists.
E. Direct Inquiry and Research
Any model must be testable and capable of being validated.
Suggest Explanations Models must go beyond description of public policy to explication